There are two critical reasons end users should learn how to search their SIEM effectively. Ineffective searching is a risk to your organization, where end users can produce inaccurate data, and thus provide inaccurate investigation results. Ineffective searching can also degrade the SIEM’s performance, increasing the amount of time required for analysts to obtain data, while affecting the overall stability of the system.
If a security analyst is asked to perform an investigation and searches incorrectly, the results for a query on malicious traffic may return null when in fact there are matches. A compromised user account may be generating significant log data, but your analysts can’t obtain logs for it because they are searching for “jsmith” instead of a case-sensitive “JSmith.” End users can also match on incorrect fields, believing they are finding the correct data when they are not.
Ineffective queries can lengthen the amount of time required to complete them, and increase the system resources used by the SIEM. Many queries can improved to significantly increase their performance, making the end user happier with a faster response time, and a healthier system that has more CPU and RAM to work on other tasks. A simple rule of thumb is to match as early in the query as possible to limit the amount of data the system searches through. Searching for data in particular fields rather than searching all fields is also a way to reduce the amount of processing the system must do. Additionally, some SIEM tools allow you to easily check for poorly performing queries. For example, Splunk’s Search Job Inspector can not only show you which queries are taking the longest, but even which parts of the query are taking longer than others, allowing you to optimize accordingly.
It’s also common for security analysts to get requests for excessive data. In many cases requestors will ask for more information than is required in order to let them drill-down into the information they need, instead of having to submit multiple requests for data. For example, there may be a request to pull log data on a user for the past two months, when all that is required is some proxy traffic for a few days. These types of requests can be resource-intensive on SIEMs, especially if there are multiple queries running simultaneously. The impact can be more severe when the queries are scheduled reports. Scheduling multiple, large, inefficient queries on a regular basis can consume a significant amount of system resources. With a few inquiries to the requestor, the security analyst may be able to significantly reduce the amount of data searched for.
While ineffective searching is a risk, it’s a simple one to reduce. Training sessions, lunch-and-learns, or workshops can significantly reduce the risks of analysts searching incorrectly and consuming unnecessary system resources. I find a simple three-page deck can provide enough information to assist analysts with searching, highlighting the tool’s case sensitivity, common fields, and sample queries. Nearly all SIEM vendors offer complimentary documentation that will show you how to search best with their product. Thus, a few hours of effort can reduce searching risks while optimizing your SIEM environment.